Summary: A kind of cleanness that dry cutting regards 21 centuries as, efficient, safe new cutting technology, reduce cutting cost not only, and prevented the cutting fluid pollution to the environment. The period setting that the article introduced to do cutting to develop, reason is right cutting tool of dry cutting machine tool, dry cutting and the smallest lubricant waited for crucial technology to undertake study. Human society has stridden 21 centuries, cutting machines the main base craft that serves as production technology, as the development of production technology, entered in order to expand the cutting technology with high speed cutting, new development and treatment method, development that offers whole set technology to be a feature new level. Its are main the trend has 4 sides: (Cutting of 1) high speed will make the new technology that cutting machines. (2) realizes difficult treatment material (if hard steel of austenite stainless steel, tall manganese steel, temper by dipping in water, composite material, wear-resisting is cast-iron,wait) the major breakthrough of processing technique. (3) satisfies manufacturing industry to machine new technology and new product requirement to cutting. (4) environmental protection raises a requirement to cutting treatment industry. Execute " green project " , development " green makes a technology " the main task that is development of treatment of new century cutting. The harm with the cutting the pollution to the environment, healthy to handlers fluid in cutting treatment will make processing focal point. And the development as high speed processing technique and wide application, cutting fluid dosage is bigger and bigger. The fluid of the cutting in producing a business of tall productivity is producing the place in cost to occupy scale to rise for 13% to 17% , because of the dry cutting emerge as the times require of derive of cutting of this high speed, the new cutting method that provides a kind of cleanness, efficient, security for new century, be what include cutting tool material, coating, construction to cutting technology is comprehensive update. The crucial technology of dry cutting includes: Technology of coating of cutting tool of dry cutting machine tool, dry cutting, cutting tool, and the least lubricant technology is waited a moment. Machine tool of dry cutting of technology of machine tool of 1 dry cutting is develop from wet cutting machine tool and come, abandoned the defect of environment of pollution of wet cutting machine tool, caused the change of its whole structure and layout necessarily. Main body is opposite in its now the foundation of effect of the heat proof quality of the machine tool, speed that discharge bits, aspiration and machine tool each respect such as 3 rigid requirements had higher demand. (The challenges cutting fluid main effect that the machine tool below 1) dry cutting faces is: Cooling, lubricate and discharge bits. Because do not have cutting fluid, dry cutting can produce the following kinds of situations: The meeting in ① cutting process produces specific humidity cutting more quantity of heat, and these quantity of heat basically are centered in cutting bits, be like the eduction in the in time main body structure from the machine tool, the heat that can make machine tool generation serious is out of shape, affect the reliability of the treatment precision of workpiece and machine tool job. The meeting when ② is doing the stuff such as electrode of cutting black lead produces a large number of dust, if cannot keep clear of in time, those who meet pair of jockey people is healthy cause damage badly, at the same time subtle grain also can invade the crucial part such as guide screw, bearing, those who increase a machine tool wear away and the treatment precision that affects a machine tool and dependability. ③ lubricates as a result of what do not have cutting fluid, the cutting obstruction in dry cutting can increase greatly, corresponding oscillatory meeting increases. The basic position of dry cutting machine tool (because the character of machine tool of 2) dry cutting fights the case that before cutting can arise, face place mentions, so, dry cutting machine tool must be had come loose goodly bits of hot, platoon and aspiration device and have good the fundamental component of 3 tigidity. Go to the lavatory to discharge bits, dry cutting machine tool should use lathe bed of inclined of vertical main shaft, bend as far as possible. Workbench all around use declining clapboard, conduce to eager bits dropping into the chamfer that discharge bits, the chamfer that discharge bits uses heat-insulating material, prevent to cut bits quantity of heat to pass machine tool part, and speed of output of the chamfer that discharge bits wants fast. And the heat that the eager bits that piles up to go up in component of machine tool workbench and other bearing can cause a machine tool is out of shape, so need boasts air system immediate effect is on workbench and clamping apparatus, cut bits to drop into the chamfer that discharge bits quickly. Because dry cutting is machining an area to produce very high quantity of heat, can affect those who cut bits to shape. The high temperature of overheat can be brought about form banding with intricate shape cut bits, influence treatment precision and reduce workpiece surface quality. Still be necessary to machining an area to install temperature sensor so, the metabolic circumstance of field of temperature of machine tool of monitoring of in order to. To prevent dust assemble, in treatment the area should have convulsions unit, the dust that produces treatment takes out a machine tool external filter device, avoid to pollute an environment. The foundation of the machine tool (namely pillar, lathe bed, workbench) static stiffness, move stiffness and hot stiffness to want big. If lathe bed can use man-made granite to wait for new material whole,make, not only 3 tigidity are good, and decrease brace up the effect is apparent. The basic position of dry cutting machine tool is shown like plan institute. Because dry cutting of cutting tool of 2 dry cutting does not use cutting liquid, in treatment the area can produce specific humidity cutting more quantity of heat, at the same time of workpiece material agglutinant also can increase. These elements can shorten greatly cutting tool life and reduce workpiece surface quality. Do cutting cutting tool to have decisive place in dry cutting process so. Material of dry cutting cutting tool should have very tall red rigid and hot tenacity not only, still must want to have good wearability, heatproof concussion and heatproof and agglutinant. Written guarantee to technology of cutting tool material, coating, cutting tool compose and geometrical parameter have higher demand. (Cutting tool of pottery and porcelain of material of cutting tool of 1) dry cutting (Al2O3, si3N4) , cermet (the hardness of the material such as Ceramet) changes below high temperature not quite, have very good red rigid, accordingly very agree with common goal does treatment and beardless cooling fluid. But this kind of data is average more fragile, heat up tenacity namely bad, reason is not applied to undertake interrupted cutting. That is to say, cutting tool of pottery and porcelain relatively apply to undertake doing turning and do not apply to dry milling. Cubic nitrogen changes boron (CBN) , get together brilliant diamond (PCD) , exceed fine grain hard alloy to wait for what each provide a characteristic to exceed material of strong cutting tool to be used increasingly extensively also at doing cutting. (The technology of coating of cutting tool of coating technology dry cutting of cutting tool of 2) dry cutting is the material of layer or on the besmear on the cutter hub in cutting tool one multilayer and different property, have the strengthen and heightens effect of function of pair of cutting tool whole thereby. The chemical stability of coating material is good, red hardness tall, thermal insulation is good wait for an advantage and the friction that can reduce edge and workpiece surface, have the effect of lubricating fluid. Development of technology of cutting tool coating is rapid, coating material amounts to 15 kinds, some cutting tool amount to 13 in the coating on cutter hub. For example, the CNC GIVIDA gear-hobbing machine of companies of 3 water chestnut heavy industry is the machine tool that Japan uses technology of completely dry cutting the first times, with the high-speed steel hob of titanium of Tu Te different. And the adoption that German Berlin university undertakes PCD coating cutting tool (HC+PCD) and the cutting tool that did not use coating (the experiment of dry turning contrast of HW) considers to make clear, coating cutting tool (HC+PCD) is less than in thrust and the cutting force of turning process, feed force not coating cutting tool (HW) . The configuration of the in-house crystal that considered to use nuclear power microscope to analyse cutting tool, feature, porosity and statified surface roughness. See from the photograph of nuclear power microscope of PCD coating its crystal has regulation form a structure. Research reachs the wearability of PCD coating cutting tool is good at not the cutting tool of coating. The coefficient of friction with PCD lesser coating means it to suit to do cutting relatively. Coating cutting tool can divide kinds big: One kind is " hard " coating cutting tool, be like TIN, the coating cutting tool such as TiC and Al2O3. Hardness of surface of this kind of cutting tool is tall, wearability is good. Among them capability of tatty of face of the knife after TiC coating cutting tool is fought is particularly strong; And TiN coating cutting tool has taller fight " crescent moon is depression " wear away ability. Another kind is " soft " coating cutting tool, be like: MoS2, the coating cutting tool such as WS. Cutting tool of this kind of coating also is called " self-lubricating cutting tool " , the coefficient of friction of it and workpiece material is very low, have 0 only.
01 the left and right sides, can reduce cutting force and drop cutting temperature. For example Switzerland develops " MOVIC " coating tap, cutting tool surface besmears Fu has a MoS2. Cutting experiment makes clear, not coating tap can machine 20 screw only; 1000 screw can be machined when using TiAlN coating tap, and the tap of MoS2 coating can machine 4000 screw. And recent research shows cutting tool of diamond coating Si3N4 is compared not the treatment of coating Si3N4 cutting tool is bright and clean degree raise one level, service life raises 10 times above. TiAlN is the coating material with dry commonly used cutting, it is when it and MoS2 base " MOVIC " " soft " coat tie rises the effect that can go weller. If express place to show the experimental result of bore of pair of heat treatment steel,make clear, tiAlN+MOVIC coating cutting tool raised 4 times than service life of TiN coating cutting tool, rose than service life of TiAlN coating cutting tool 1.
66 times. Coating compares coating TiN to improve degree TiN1000TiAlN2400240%TiAlN+MOVIC4000400% to note to the life of influence cutting tool of cutting tool life: This experiment condition is to use 0.
3346 inches (8.
5mm) diamond bit, auger cut deepness 1.
0 inches (25.
4mm) , linear velocity is 395 feet / cent (120m/min) , feed is 0.
07 inches / turn (1.
78mm/r) . (The structure that the structure of cutting tool of 3) dry cutting and geometrical parameter use dry cutting to still answer to consider to optimize cutting tool according to different treatment condition and every He Can are counted. Of cutting tool He Can is counted and structural design must satisfy 10 cutting to be opposite bits and the requirement that discharge bits. Well-known, there is very crucial effect to breaking bits in breaking bits chamfer to be machined in tenacity material. Can be aimed at different workpiece material and cutting dosage, devise structure of corresponding the chamfer that break bits and measure, bits is cut to break off in raising cutting project ability and to cutting the control capacity of bits flow direction. And in close the space undertakes doing cutting (if work auger cut, dry bore with a reamer is cut, dry tap) when, the space of the chamfer that hold bit that should increase cutting tool and the taper that carry awl on the back. For example WZL(Werkzeugmaschinenlabor-RWTH Aachen) experiment of Germany reachs, using hard alloy bit (HC-P+ coating TiN) is dry auger cut temper steel [Ck45K(AL-Si1045)] , aperture of hole depth 30mm 11.
8mm, cutting speed: Vc=80m/min, every time feed F=0.
When 2mm, standard broach can be gotten only cut about 400 hole, and the broach that discharges appearance of bits chamfer geometry through optimizing broaden broach can be gotten cut be as high as 2200 aperture, the advantage is clear. Additional, dry cutting still can use a few special cutting tool (cutting tool of the canal that be like heat and from cooling cutting tool) will drop cutting tool temperature, raise the durability of cutting tool. (4) does cutting and the least lubricant technology to do cutting boom in recent years definitely, when the data that processes in dinkum to cannot be being used dry cutting is machined, can use the least lubricant technology (Minimal Quantities Of Lubrication (MQL) ) undertakes cutting. The method of cooling fluid of this kind of use minim is called " accurate dry cutting " . "Steam bundle " sparge refrigeration cutting is a kind of model " accurate dry cutting " . This method is will constant pressure (0.
The compression of 3 ～ 1MPa) the lubricating fluid of air and minim (50 ～ form oily mist after 125ml/h) mixture pulverization, next high speed eject arrives cutting area, lubricate effectively adequately to machining interface to undertake, at the same time liquid aerification absorbs much quantity of heat, workpiece still maintains the appearance dry group. MQL means cent is the following 3 kinds: 1) interior is lubricant; 2) is exterior and lubricant; 3) medium is lubricant. Well-known, the light alloy such as aluminium alloy of high speed milling, copper alloy has cutting force and cutting power small, cut bits weak point, cutting not the original dominant position such as coil. It is with the cutting tool such as diamond of coating hard alloy, much brilliant below high speed material of cutting light alloy, cutting tool wears away small, can reach very tall cutting tool life; And in cutting melting point low, high speed falls agglutinant old stuff needs to use the smallest lubricant (the method of MQL) and coating cutting tool, below the circumstance of approximately complete dry cutting, can use very high cutting rate and feed speed to undertake machining, cutting speed can be as high as 1000 ～ 7500m/min, need not repass any treatment or handiwork are abrade, the spare parts can get very high surface quality. For example of Germany (Werkzeugmaschinenlabor-RWTH Aachen) experiment reachs, use hard alloy cutting tool [HC+ coating (TiAlN+MoS2)] is gotten cut aluminium alloy (AlSi9Cu3) , bore diameter 8.
5mm, blind aperture (Vc=300m/min of speed of cutting of Blind Hole) deep 30mm, every time feed F=0.
5mm should undertake cut cutting tool machined 16 aperture only working completely getting in the experiment, and the cutting tool that used MQL technology machined 128 aperture, it is former of 8 times. When this shows is machining aluminium alloy, be necessary completely to use MQL technology. 3 summary and looking into dry cutting to regard a kind of new cutting as craft and high speed cutting supplement each other. It reduced cutting cost not only, also prevented environmental pollution. Dry cutting technology is project of a system, the innovation that involves cutting tool, machine tool, craft, material and production to run a lot of side and innovation. Must emphasize a bit, dry cutting is parameter of structure of a cutting cutting tool, machining center and treatment the element such as strategy is integrated the treatment at an organic whole is new craft. Answer in the light of different cutting condition and cutting material 3 element are in sufficient balance above but the advantages and disadvantages between managing finished cost and attainable treatment effect, make true treatment plan next. All sorts of exceeding hard, high temperature resistant the swift and violent development of cutting tool material and its coating technology, the development that is dry cutting technology created very advantageous condition; The effective application of lubricant device mixes minimum all sorts of aperture that take central alveolus machine standard cutting tool appear, be united in wedlock with photograph of new-style machine tool again, be sure to promote the swift and violent development of dry cutting technology. CNC Milling